Periodontal disease is the most prevalent dental problem after tooth decay, affecting millions globally. It is the leading cause of tooth loss that can negatively impact your oral form, function, and aesthetics.
Our renowned dentist in Cotswold, Charlotte, NC, provides comprehensive evaluation and treatment for periodontal disease for patient satisfaction.
Defining periodontal disease
Any infection and inflammation in the oral cavity affecting the supporting tissues (periodontium) is known as periodontal disease. The periodontium comprises the gums, PDL (periodontal ligament), cementum, and the alveolar bone. This may begin as a silent disease of the gums and progress involving the other components of the periodontium.
Different stages of periodontal disease
- Gingivitis: It is reversible and involves only the gums.
- Mild periodontitis: It is characterized by the presence of gingival pockets.
- Moderate periodontitis: Here, the infection spreads to the underlying bone.
- Advanced periodontitis: This stage exhibits continuous bone loss, where teeth become loose and eventually fall out.
Possible etiological factors for periodontal disease
Plaque is considered a prime etiological factor for many dental problems, especially periodontal disease. This is a sticky film adhering to the tooth surfaces and paving the way for bacterial infiltration. The harmful toxins and acids released by these microorganisms can demineralize your teeth, infect your gums, and impair your immune system to effectively fight infections.
- Genetic predisposition
- Poor oral hygiene
- Hormonal imbalance during puberty, pregnancy, and menopause
- Unhealthy lifestyle habits like tobacco use and smoking
- Stress and depression
- Certain autoimmune diseases like lupus
- Heart or respiratory disease
Clinical manifestations of periodontal disease
Periodontal disease is often silent, meaning symptoms may not appear until the advanced stages. However, warning signs include:
- Reddish or purple gums
- Swollen and bleeding gums
- Gum soreness and tenderness
- Halitosis (bad breath)
- Gum recession
- Increased tooth sensitivity
- Loose teeth
- Bite problems
Treatment options for periodontal disease
Your dentist will determine the type of treatment required based on the disease stage and severity of symptoms.
Treatment options include:
- Mild symptoms
- Professional dental cleaning
- Antimicrobial mouthwash
- Topical gels
- Moderate symptoms
- Oral antibiotics
- Pocket irrigation
- Tissue regeneration
- PRP (platelet-rich plasma therapy)
- Severe symptoms
- Gum grafting
- Pocket elimination surgery (flap surgery)
- Bone grafting
- Dentures, bridges, or dental implants for replacement of missing teeth
Early detection and treatment for periodontal disease are crucial and can help you better manage your oral health. Left untreated, it can take a toll on oral and overall general health.